CEMENT PRODUCTION
by means of vibratory-impulse cone crusher-mills substituting for ball mills and centrifugal mills, as well as roll hydro-presses, to reduce power consumption 10 times and milling bodies’ consumption 50 times
 
Ball mills and centrifugal ones (Fig. 1 and 2) are used for producing cement, and their design is kept almost without changes during already 100 years. When they are exploited, power consumption is about 35 kW per 1 ton of cement and milling bodies’ consumption (balls and armours) reaches 3 kg per 1 ton of cement. Another drawback of grinding with balls is that particles are of rounded isometric shape with reduced mechanical and chemical activity.  Milling by balls brings to formation of particles with size less than 5 microns and even particles in nano-range. These particles have a tendency to form aggregates that do not participate in creation of concrete and generate zones of “sleeping” cement which are concentrators of stresses in concrete.
 

Fig. 1. Ball mill
 
Fig. 2. Centrifugal mill.
 
Usage of roller hydro-presses before mills (Fig. 3) allows to decrease energy consumption by 30-35 % and correspondingly decreases milling bodies’ consumption. But the cost of such roller hydro-presses is millions of dollars and power of electric motor is more than 1000 kW. The product after roller hydro-presses contains compacted plates that need additional energy to destroy them.
Cone inertia crusher with vibrodrive of crushing cone is used to produce gravel for road construction. Such crusher can not be used for production of cement because of limitation of crushing force in limits of reliability. Its bearings do not stand pressures that are necessary for producing cement.
 
Fig. 3. Roll hydro-press.
 
The group of Russian scientists and designers succeeded to create the vertical vibratory mill that can be called vertical roller vibropress. In such mill the milling force increases in 2.2 times because of usage of two oppositely directed vibrators, one of them is located in bearings of internal milling body and the second – in bearings of external milling body. The second vibrator is the driver and support of the first one and plays the role of dynamic equilibrator of vibratory mill.
The constructive scheme of cone inertia crusher is shown on Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 shows the scheme of suggested vibratory-impulse cone crusher-mill. Both the machines have two milling bodies: internal is placed inside the external. In a crusher on Fig. 4 there is one vibrator on milling body, in crusher on Fig.5 there are two opposite vibrators. One of vibrators gives crushing force to internal body and forces it to move towards external body, and the second vibrator gives crushing force to external body and forces it to move towards internal body.
Fig. 4. Scheme of vibratory crusher with hanging unbalance:
1 – outer cone, 2 – inner cone, 3 – unbalance,
4 – body, 5 – drive.
 
That’s why forces of vibrators and milling bodies are summarized and clinker between them is destroyed to powder without formation of compacted plates because of vibrations. In open cycle in ready product there is 45 % of cement of ready fineness of developed splintered form; particles in nano-range are not found.
Power consumption per 1 ton of cement equals 2.5-3.0 kWh; milling bodies’ consumption equals 0.003 kg per 1 ton of cement.
 
Fig. 5. Scheme of vibratory-impulse mill with anti-unbalance:
1 – outer cone, 2 – inner cone, 3 – unbalance,
4 – body, 5 – drive, 6 – anti-unbalance.
 

 
General view of vibratory-impulse mill is shown on Fig. 6.
Fig. 7, 8, 9 and 10 show correspondingly schemes of cement works:
– Fig. 7 – conventional scheme;
– Fig. 8 – conventional scheme with roll hydro-press;
– Fig. 9 – scheme with vibratory mills together with ball mills;
– Fig. 10 – scheme with vibratory mills only.
The first conventional scheme (Fig. 7) consists only from ball mills with the productivity of each mill up to 200 t/h with 6000 kW electric motor and provides 1200 t/h summary productivity with 36000 kW summary power consumption.

Fig. 6. General view of vibratory-impulse cone crusher-mill.
 
 
Using roll hydro-presses under the second scheme (Fig. 8) productivity of ball mills increases by 35 % (here we take 50 %). In the total the same productivity (1200 t/h) is provided by 28000 kW of overall consumed power.
The third scheme (Fig. 9) with using vibratory mills together with ball mills has general power 13400 kW.
The fourth scheme (Fig. 10) with using only vibratory mills has general power 2100 kW.
 
CONVENTIONAL CEMENT CLINKER GRINDING PROCESS
 
 
 
 
 
CEMENT CLINKER GRINDING PROCESS WITH USING HYDRO-PRESSES
 
 
 
CEMENT CLINKER GRINDING PROCESS WITH USING VIBRATORY MILLS
 
 
 
CEMENT CLINKER GRINDING PROCESS WITH ONLY VIBRATORY MILLS